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Our 43nd Year
FOR THE MEETING TUESDAY, JAN 23,
Meets Fourth Tuesday,
Founded March 1964
Fletcher Branch Library, H & Buchanan
(East of University Ave.),
Program at 7 p.m.
VOL. XLIII, No. 1,
Ron Kelly, President/
Charles O. Durnett, Sec-Editor,
Dues $15 Per Year
VISIT THE BATTLEFIELDS WHEN YOU CAN...
WHILE YOU CAN
Randy has been with us
before and is well versed on his subject, John Sappington Marmaduke
(March 14, 1833 – December 28, 1887) was a Confederate general during
the American Civil War, and was governor of Missouri from 1884 until his
death in 1887.
American voters generally like military heroes, but in our day
would have been warned away from candidacy by even the bravest spin
doctor. Tall, blue-eyed, mustachioed, somewhat handsome though
middle-aged, Marmaduke unfortunately appeared haughty and reticent,
spoke poorly from the platform, alienated
interests, and was a bachelor. He also had killed a fellow officer in
the Civil War.
Yet this former Confederate general managed to get elected governor of
Missouri. His productive administration aided in
the state’s transition from an
antebellum culture into
a new Missouri
in which former Unionists and Confederates worked together.
Marmaduke was the
offspring of a prominent
clan who were leaders of the Boonslick Democracy, a powerful political
alliance of Southern aristocrats and yeoman farmers, many of whom were
also slaveholders before the War Between the States. His Virginia-born
M. Marmaduke, was elected
lieutenant governor in 1840 and succeeded briefly to the governorship
The second son among ten
children, Marmaduke studied at Yale and
Harvard and earned his lieutenant’s commission from
West Point. When the issue of secession split
Missouri, the father supported the Union while
the son sided with the South. His initial battle was an embarrassment:
his ragtag bunch of Southern militia fled the Unionists in an 1861
skirmish waggishly dubbed the Boonville Races.
His subsequent career,
with stints as a cavalry leader, was distinguished, and he rose to the
rank of major general. While under Gen. Sterling Price’s command near
Arkansas, in September 1863,
however, he fell out with his immediate superior,
Walker. Marmaduke suggested that
Walker’s absence from the field
had imperiled Marmaduke’s men in the face of the enemy.
resented this implication of cowardice and challenged Marmaduke to a
have not pronounced you a coward,” Marmaduke wrote back harshly, “but I
desire to inform you that your conduct as commander of the cavalry … was
such that I determined no longer to serve you.” Consequently, at first
light September 6, the two generals faced each other with Colt Navy
revolvers. Both fired and missed. Marmaduke recocked and fired, striking
with a killing shot. Marmaduke offered his assistance, and
Walker, in his failing moments,
forgave his subordinate.
February 27, 2007
March 27, 2007
Home from Gettysburg
April 24, 2007
Women during the War Between the States
May 22, 2007
June 26, 2007
W. D. Honnoll
The Swamp Fox
July 24, 2007
August 28, 2007
September 24, 2007
October 23, 2007
November 27, 2007
We Who Study
Must Also Strive To Save!
MINUTES FROM MEETING
The officers for Civil War Roundtable for the
year 2007 :
- Vice President
Durnett – Secretary
President is in charge of the room and the meeting (Set up-getting
key-lock up). Once again, there is plenty of help here from folks.
The VP is in charge of all the programs and getting and introducing the
speakers. Practically speaking, everybody can suggest programs.
Secretary generally schedules with the library, keeps minutes of the
meeting, and handles general correspondence.
Treasurer collects the dues, handles financial correspondence, and deals
with any honorariums that may be necessary.
Brian also handles the raffle.
The dues each year are $15 and are due in January. The organization has
few expenses, so the dues are low to make them affordable to everyone.
The main expenses are the newsletter each month and an occasional
honorarium for a speaker.
Chairman CACWHT -
Vice Chairman CACWHT -
The Central Arkansas Civil War Heritage Trail is a sister organization
of the Roundtable and is a part of the network providing input from
The Arkansas Civil War Heritage Trail is a network of regional private,
nonprofit, volunteer organizations seeking to identify, protect,
interpret, and promote
properties related to the state's Civil War experience. The Arkansas
Historic Preservation Program, an agency of the Department of Arkansas
Heritage, provides general guidance for the groups.
EVENTS FROM JANUARY
January 04-11, 1863
to mouth of White River, across land and up
On January 4, 1863, Grant
placed Maj. Gen. John
in command of Union
forces that were attempting to regain control of the
. McClernand, a former
congressman who owed his position to President
's desire to hold southern Illinois
Democrats to the Union cause, was despised by regular army men, and he
knew it, but he was determined to make the most of his opportunity.
After concluding that future operations against
were threatened by the continued presence of Rebel forces at Arkansas
Post, he determined to attack and destroy it.
, fresh from his defeat at
Chickasaw Bluffs and now in McClernand's command, concurred. On the
night of January 4, Sherman
conferred with Adm.
, chief of river operations, on board
's headquarters boat, the Black Hawk, to develop
plans for the attack .
On January 8, McClernand loaded
thirty-two thousand infantry, one thousand cavalry, and more than forty
pieces of artillery aboard sixty transports. Escorted by three ironclads
and several other rams and gunboats, the Federal flotilla headed upriver
from Milliken's Bend
In an attempt to mask his intentions, McClernand directed that the force
continue upriver past the mouth of the Arkansas
to the mouth of the White River
flotilla proceeded up the White and thence through a cut-off to the
, where it turned upriver toward
. At 5 p.m. on the
ninth of January, the troops began disembarking on the left bank of the
river at Nortrebe's farm, approximately three miles below the fort.
By noon on the tenth, all troops had been landed. In addition, two
regiments of infantry, one of cavalry, and three pieces of artillery
were landed on the right bank of the river with instructions to gain a
position above the fort from which they could control the upriver
Churchill ordered his whole force, which he reported as "3,000
effective men," to take positions in trenches about one-and-a-half miles
below the fort to block the direct line of advance along the river
between Nortrebe's farm and
But enfilading fire from the gunboats Rattler and Black Hawk forced the
Confederates to withdraw to the fort and adjoining positions. Defective
powder limited the range of
Hindman's big guns
preventing them from effectively challenging the gunboats.
McClernand planned to move his troops into position on
a plateau north of the fort. To divert attention from this movement, he
ordered Porter to move his
gunboats upriver to engage
Hindman's guns. Shortly
after 5:30 p.m., Porter sent
the ironclads Louisville, Baron
de Kalb, and
upriver to within
four hundred yards of the fort. As soon as
these became engaged, Porter
also sent the light draft vessels
and Black Hawk to throw in shrapnel and rifled shell. Finally, he
ordered the Rattler to steam past the fort and enfilade it. A fierce
duel ensued in which the Rattler sustained severe damage from
Confederate guns and drifted back into an abatis that Dunnington had
placed in the river opposite the Post. The fight continued until after
dark, when superior Union firepower finally succeeded in silencing most
of the fort's guns. McClernand continued to deploy his troops throughout
the evening of the tenth.
also busy positioning his troops in the rifle pits extending west from
the fort to Post Bayou.,, During the night, he received a telegraphic
dispatch from General Holmes
ordering him to "hold out till help arrived or all dead."
passed the word on to his brigade commanders with instructions to see it
carried out "in spirit and letter."
Texas cavalryman scoffed, "When it comes to our number holding out . . .
against such odds it is all bosh, and if 'GRANNY' Holmes was down here
could smell a little gunpowder, he would get better of the 'hold
on' fit which so recently seized him at LITTLE ROCK.
McClernand recorded that the night was cold and his troops without fires
and tents, but on the morning of January 11, his "chilled but faithful
men were greeted by a bright and genial sun." His plan called for
Porter's gunboats to begin a thirty-minute shelling of
the Rebel positions at 1 p.m. This would be followed by a three-minute
lull, and then the full-scale assault would begin.
Porter's barrage began as scheduled.
On the Union right,
, whose troops were in position
approximately four hundred yards from the Confederate lines, noticed
that the Rebel artillery quickly ceased to respond to the fire. He
ordered his troops forward before the specified time had passed. Soon
the entire Federal line was in motion. With
's big guns
moved in, pounding the fort from close range and lobbing exploding
shells over the walls.
Reduced to reliance on small-arms fire
and what remained of their six field pieces, the Confederates
nevertheless resisted fiercely, staggering and halting the Union
soldier on the left end of the Confederate line, watched the advancing
Federals with a mixture of awe and dread. Although he overestimated the
size of the enemy army, he provided a vivid account of the climactic
point of the battle:
"Oh what a grand sight. FORTY THOUSAND
men pressing forward as one man, all silent except the commands of the
Officers, on, on they come like an irresistible thunder-bolt, as it
dashes unrestrained through the air; to crush the atoms of the sturdiest
Oak, or cleave the adamantine cliffs in twain.
The Confederates remain as silent as
spectators, every man with his finger on the trigger, and each gunner at
his post, until the front line of the enemy are within seventy yards of
our works; a blaze of fire flashed like lightning along our line,
sending three thousand bullets into the Federal ranks, while at the same
time [our remaining artillery] poured forth grape and canister; opening
avenues of death through the lines of the advancing foe, their lines
waver; halt; and fall back, but in good order, leaving the ground
strewed with their dead and dying; They reform their lines for another
Through the Howling Wilderness
Red River Campaign and
Union Failure in the West
The Red River Campaign of 1864 was a
bold attempt to send large Union army and navy forces deep into the
interior of Louisiana
, seize the Rebel
capital of the state, and defeat the Confederate army guarding the
region enabling uninhibited access to
to the west. Through the Howling
Wilderness emphasizes the Confederate defensive measures and the hostile
attitudes of commanders toward each other as well as toward their
contends that the campaign was important to both the Union army and navy
in the course of the war and afterward, altering the political landscape
in the fall presidential elections in 1864. The campaign redirected
troops originally assigned to operate in Georgia during the pivotal
Atlanta campaign, thus delaying the end of the war by weeks or even
months, and it forced the navy to refocus its inland or “brown water”
naval tactics. The Red River Campaign ushered in deep resentment toward
the repatriation of the State of
Louisiana after the war ended. Profound
consequences included legal, political, and sociological issues that
surfaced in Congressional hearings as a result of the Union defeat.
The efforts of the
Confederates to defend northern
Louisiana have been largely ignored. Their
efforts at building an army and preparations to trap the union naval
forces before the campaign began have been all but lost in the
literature of the Civil War. Joiner’s book will remedy this lack of
Replete with in-depth
coverage on the geography of the region, the Congressional hearings
after the Campaign, and the Confederate defenses in the
Valley, Through the
Howling Wilderness will appeal to Civil War historians and buffs alike.
is assistant professor of history at Louisiana
in Shreveport where he is director of the
Red River Regional
Center. He is also owner
of Precision Cartographics in
Shreveport. Dr. Joiner is the co-editor of No
Pardons to Ask, nor Apologies to Make and the author of One Damn Blunder
from Beginning to End: The Red River Campaign of 1864, winner of the
2004 Albert Castel Award and the 2005 A.M. Pate, Jr., Award.
THE CROOKED ROAD TO THE CIVIL WAR, 1861
A compelling re-creation of the eight crucial weeks preceding the Civil
In early March 1861,
civil war loomed. By late April, Americans had begun to kill their
fellow citizens. Cry Havoc! recounts in riveting detail the events that
divided the states and reveals how quirks of timing, character, and
place all conspired to transform the nation into a battlefield.
Lankford, author of Richmond
Burning, chronicles the eight critical weeks that began with
Lincoln’s inauguration through the explosion at
and the president’s fateful response to it. Before
the balance could have tipped in favor of a peaceful resolution. This
book addresses the many mighthave-beens, both familiar and lesser known.
had delayed the proclamation calling for troops? Could wavering
Unionists in the upper South have held the line?
A must read for all who
wish to understand the birth of the modern United States of America, Cry
Havoc! probes the fateful series of events and analyzes each of the
failed possibilities that hindsight affords.
WHEN YOU CAN
...WHILE YOU CAN
SEE YOU TUESDAY NIGHT
GOD BLESS AMERICA
Civil War Roundtable of Arkansa
HAPPY 200TH BIRTHDAY