SECOND TO NONE DURING THE WAR:
GRIERSON'S WINTER RAID
By Jim Woodrick,
Civil War Sites Historian,
Department of Archives and History
not nearly as well known as his famous cavalry raid in April, 1863,
Benjamin Grierson's "other" raid in the winter of 1864-1865, caused
more destruction than Grierson's other forays into the interior of
Mississippi. Moving down the Mobile & Ohio Railroad, Grierson's
three brigades tore up tracks, burned bridges and supply depots, and
seriously disrupted Confederate communications.
two-week, 450 mile expedition, the Union raiders fought sharp
engagements at Egypt Station and Franklin Church -- at the latter
against an Arkansas
regiment. The speaker will examine the results of the raid, the
Confederate response to the expedition, and the expedition's
relationship to and effect on the overall war effort.
A native of
Meridian, Mississippi, Jim Woodrick serves as Civil War Sites
Historian with the Mississippi Department of Archives and History.
In that capacity, he oversees the Mississippi Civil War Trails
program and is involved in a number of studies, including a
historical and archaeological study for the American Battlefield
Protection Program on the
He also administers the State
Historical Marker Program. A lifelong student of the Civil
War, Jim is actively involved in the Jackson Civil War Round Table,
where he serves as editor of that organization's newsletter, and is
a frequent speaker at Civil War conferences and seminars. A graduate
College in Jackson, he is also a
member of the Mississippi United Methodist Commission on Archives
A VERY SPECIAL PRESENTATION
State Senator Shane Broadway will
make a special presentation, during the meeting, in Memory of Jerry
Russell. Senator Broadway has served in the General Assembly since
1997, and served as the Speaker of the House of Representatives.
FROM THE NURSES TENT
To: Charles Durnette,
Civil War Roundtable of Arkansas
From: Gaylord M.
23 February 2004
Subject: Resignation as President
1. It is with the utmost regret
that I find my physical condition requires that I resign from my
position as President of the Civil War Roundtable of Arkansas,
effective 25 February 2004.
My hematologist/oncologist informed me recently that my
myelodysplasia has progressed to acute leukemia.
My membership in the Civil War Roundtable of Arkansas has
been of great pleasure and pride to me. I have viewed it as
an honor and opportunity. As President
in 2004, I had looked forward to interesting Programs, and new
achievements to further better understanding of
the Civil War.
I want to express my pleasure in serving with you briefly as
your President. And, I want to thank you for your faith and
confidence in me, by electing
me to be your President for 2004.
Thank you for the opportunity to be your friend and
With my warmest regards,
/ signed /
Gaylord M. Northrop
With great regret, a nominating committee
was appointed and met briefly after the meeting. The committee has
asked Brian Brown to complete the term, serving as both president
and treasurer. His name will be placed before the members at
Thursday’s meeting. The Committee was Randy Baldwin, Charles
Durnette, Don Hamilton, Brian Brown & Tom Ezell.
AN OPPORTUNITY TO OWN
A PIECE OF HISTORY
small portion of the collection of memorabilia from Jerry Russell’s
personal Civil War collection will be available at the meeting for
purchase. Alice Anne Russell is in the process of downsizing this
enormous collection. A small portion of his vast book and video
collection will be on display.
YOUR CIVIL WAR COLLECTION
family of Tom Beam will have a part of his Civil War collection
available for purchase at the Robert C. Newton Camp, Sons of
Confederate Veterans meeting. The SCV will meet, Thursday evening at
7:00 pm March 25TH, Fletcher Branch Library, H & Buchanan (East of
University Ave.), Little
Rock. (The same as the CWRT)
The collection includes:
First In Last Out,
They'll Do To Tie To,
Confederate Ram Arkansas (autographed copy is optional as
there are several of
Confederate General William
"Dirty Neck Bill" Scurry (autographed copy is optional as I have
several of each),
My Dear Wife (mint dust jacket), Civil War
Command and Strategy (mint dust jacket), Kurz & Allison
Prints: Battle of Pea Ridge, Shiloh, Vicksburg, among others, First at
Vicksburg by Hal Stone, Siege of
Vicksburg L. Prang and Company in Boston and copyrighted in 1888, Main Street
Little Rock Arkansas 1926 (hand signed and numbered), Rock Island Line
(hand signed and numbered), Print of the
Riverboat "The Arkansas" on the Arkansas River (hand signed and
Money, Bullets, Mini Balls (many Arkansas), Drum, Guns, Shackles,
Swords (dug), Mini Ball molds, buttons, buckles, other books,
statues, prints, slave documents, and many predrawings and working
copies by artists as well as their final works.
about your 2004 dues
dues are $15.00 for a family membership. If you have a question
about your dues contact Brian. If you would like to pay, your dues
Brian Brown, Treasurer
Civil War Roundtable of
You may wonder
where your dues go. The main expenditures for the CWRT are two-fold
the newsletter and speaker expenses. For those speakers that have to
come some distance, we offer an honorarium or partial expenses for
the trip. Our fee for the WebSite is piggybacked and only costs us
the annual fee. Aristotle ISP donates the space to us.
main expenditure is always the newsletter. We send out about 100
each month to the speakers and, to dues paying members, etcetera. It
costs right at $47 to have it printed and collated each month, and
the stamps run another $37. For the first two months this year, the
printing has been donated and the only thing we will have to pay is
have tried ways to cut the cost of the mailings as many members have
noted. We’ve tried self-mailers but that does not seem to work so we
will be going back to mailing in envelopes. During the years, we
will be experimenting with other cost cutting. We hope eventually to
get everything on the Web Page. Making that available to our
the Newsletter has been posted on the WebSite for over three years.
You can sign up there to be notified when new information is posted.
Currently, nearly 250 folks have signed up for the notifications.
March 23, 2004 –
PROGRAMS FOR 2004
Jim Woodrick, Jackson, Miss.
April 27, 2004 –
May 25, 2004 –
Roundtable of Arkansas
June 22, 2004 –
July 27, 2004 –
Gaylord Northrop, Sherwood,
Command & Control in Confederate Arkansas.
August 24, 2004 –
Supt. Ralph Jones,
of Honey Springs.
September 28, 2004 –
October 26, 2004 –
November 23, 2004 –
December, 2004 –
No meeting Scheduled in
Civil War Heritage
July 19-24, 2004
Take a complete, week-long summer vacation, or just
a day-long family outing in beautiful and historic central Kentucky. Six important Kentucky Civil War
sites are cooperating to provide visitors and hometown folks with an
extraordinary opportunity to tour the region in unprecedented style.
On successive days during one week in the summer of 2004, these
sites will greet visitors with the best they have to offer; expertly
guided tours, hands-on activities, concerts, living history
programs, and more.
JULY 19 –
The War In The
Opening ceremony with artillery salutes; living
history visits to a garrison encampment and an 1864 inn; tours of
with two earthwork forts and a Morgan's Last Raid skirmish site; Old
State Capitol; Ky.
evening Civil War concert in historic downtown by Saxton's Cornet
Band. Special lodging & meal rates. 502-696-0607 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
JULY 20 - CAMP
Hands-On Archaeology and Artillery Demonstrations
Camp Nelson is the site of an important Union Army supply
depot and enlistment center for African-American and White troops. It was also a hospital and refugee camp for the families
of enlisted African-American soldiers. The park includes five miles
of interpretive trails, an interpretive center and a house museum,
all in a pristine rural setting. Hands-on archaeology at the prison
site; artillery demonstrations by the 12th U.S. Colored
Heavy Artillery; and guided tours. Call 859-881-9126 for more
10 a.m.-5 p.m.
JULY 21 –
Complete Confederate Victory
Presentation on Battle of Richmond, Kentucky, by a
noted authority on the details of this extraordinary fight; living
history interaction with Union and Confederate soldiers; visit to an
1860s wayside tavern; guided tours of Richmond battlefield all the
way from Big Hill to the Richmond Cemetery; 19th century music
program. Self-guided driving tours also
available. Call 800-866-3705 for more information.
Activities begin at noon.
JULY 22 - CAMP WILDCAT
The War In
See where the Union held the
and prevented an invasion of the Bluegrass region. See the
Confederate campsite, traces of the Wilderness
Road, original trenches, and hospital rock. Enjoy a
hayride tour, historical speaker, and living history camp with a
chaplain, ladies' tea and cannon demonstration. Call 800-348-0095 or
email email@example.com for area lodging and meals. 10 a.m.-5 p.m.
JULY 23 - MILL SPRINGS
The Fog of War
Battlefield tours beginning at 10 a.m. and
continuing all day (easy to moderate walking conditions).
Self-guided driving tour (9 stops) including Mill Springs (allow 2
to 3 hours).
A guided immersion tour called “The Confederate Perspective”
starts at 10 a.m. This tour will last 5-6
hours and cover 12 miles. Includes
lunch, and a visit to the Mill, $35 per
person donation. Moderate to difficult
walking conditions. All events begin at
Zollicoffer Park. Call 606-679-1859 before July 16 for reservations or
JULY 24 - PERRYVILLE
Experience the cost of war at Perryville, site of Kentucky's largest Civil War battle. Enjoy
guided battlefield tours and an interactive experience at Merchants'
Row, the town's preserved 19th century commercial district.
Living history events include a Civil War-era embalming
presentation, cavalry, and civilian experiences as they relate to
the aftermath of battle.
The site includes nearly 600 acres of battlefield land, a
five-mile interpretive trail, museum, and period doctor's office and
shops. For details contact firstname.lastname@example.org or call
10 a.m.-6 p.m.
FOR A SNOWY DAY
COMPLETE LIST AVAILABLE AT
Akridge, Scott A., and Emmett E.
Powers, A Severe and Bloody Fight: The
of Whitney's Lane & Military Occupation of White
Arkansas, May & June, 1862,
Historical Museum, Searcy,
Allen, Desmond Walls, The Fourteenth
Confederate Infantry. Conway,
Anderson, Mabel W. Life of Genera! Stand Watie, the Only Indian
Brigadier General of the Confederate Army and the Last General to
Bailey, Anne J. “The Texas Cavalry’s Race To Reinforce
Post, January 1863.” East Texas
Historical Journal, XXVIII (No. 1, 1989), 45-56.
Bearss, Edwin C. “The
July 4, 1863.” Arkansas
Historical Quarterly, XX (Autumn 1961), 25 6-297.
Bearss, Edwin C. “The Battle of Pea Ridge.” Arkansas
Historical Quarterly, XX (Spring 1961) 74-94.
Brown, Dee. "Wilson’s Creek.” Civil War
Times Illustrated, XI (1972), 8-18.
Christ, Mark K.,
editor, Rugged and Sublime - The Civil War in
Christ, Mark K.,
Getting Used to Being Shot At: The Spence Family Civil War Letters.
University of Arkansas
Ferguson, John L., editor. Arkansas
and the Civil War. Little
Rock: Pioneer Press, 1965. [Mostly a
collection of original documents relating to
Arkansas and the War.]
Lancaster, Bob, “To
and Back: War as a Muddy Horror.”
Times, X (April 1984), 46-48, 64-72
“Disloyalty and Class Consciousness in Southwestern Arkansas,
1862-1865” Arkansas Historical Quarterly, LII (Autumn
Moneyhon, Carl, “The
Impact of the Civil War In Arkansas:
Mississippi River Plantation Counties,”
Historical Quarterly, LI (Summer 1992), 105-118.
O’Donnell, William W. The Civil War
Quadrennium. Little Rock: Civil War
Roundtable of Arkansas,
1985. [Little Rock
during the Civil War.]
Pollan, Carolyn. “Fort
Under Union Military Rule, September 1, 1863-Fall, 1865.”
Fort Smith Historical Society Journal, VI
(April 1982), 2-33.
Pollan, Carolyn, “‘The
Fort Smith Militia in
1861.” Fort Smith
Historical Society Journal, IV (September 1980), 2-11. [Contains
diary of Private John M. Lucey and biography of Paul Krone, early
Roberts, Bobby L.
“Thomas C. Hindman, Jr.: Secessionist and Confederate General.”
Master’s thesis, University of
Roberts, Bobby L., and
Carl Moncyhon. Portraits of Conflict: A Photographic History of
Arkansas in the Civil War.
Press, 1987. [An important book with much more than photographs.]
Woodruff, William E., With the Light
Guns in ‘61- ‘65; Reminiscences of Eleven
Light Batteries in the Civil War.
Little Rock: Central Printing Co., 1903.
Reprinted Little Rock: Eagle Press, 1987.
Woods, James M. “Devotees and
in the Confederate Congress, 1861-1865.”
Historical Quarterly, XXXVIII (Autumn 1979), 227-247.
POLITICAL POWER 1860-1865
population of Arkansas
in 1860 was 435,450 and included 324,143 Caucasians and 111,259
African-Americans. Both the Caucasian and African-American
populations had approximately doubled each decade from 1840 (the
first census after
became a state) to 1860. As
attained statehood in 1836, sectional politics drove decisions on
representation. Representatives from the southern and eastern
areas of the state prevailed in their positions, and the House and
Senate districts positioned more political power in the southern and
eastern counties of the state. When the state convention
considered secession in 1861, voting patterns reflected the
sectional politics of the state. Delegates favoring secession
were generally from areas south and east of a northeast to southwest
diagonal across the state.
in January of 1861, Arkansans had debated seceding from the Union. On February 18 they voted to convene a state
delegation to consider appropriate action on the secession issue.
The conventions first meeting was in the House chamber of the Old
State House in
Little Rock on March 4, and the proposal for
secession was defeated
April 12, Confederate forces opened fired on the Federal garrison at
in Charleston harbor, South Carolina.
The Federal forces withdrew from the fort the following day.
In Arkansas, Governor Rector
ordered a small state militia to Fort Smith to seize the Federal post there.
By April 23, the Federal garrison in Fort Smith had withdrawn. On April 25,
the state convention president called the secession delegation to
reconvene. On May 6, the delegation convened, voted for
secession, and proceeded to organize the states volunteer military.
is about as short as it gets. Before the war Arkansas
was about 19TH most prosperous state in the union after the war it
crashed to the bottom of the list because they could not maintain
the agricultural economic base.
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Many thanks to Rob MacGregor for his
After the Civil War
Don't forget, our 40th birthday coming soon.
SEE YOU TUESDAY NIGHT
for Jim Woodrick
GRIERSON'S WINTER RAID
We Who Study
Strive To Save!