by Dr. Dan Sutherland,
The Uni-versity of Arkansas,
We are fortunate to have as our speaker this month Dr. Daniel E. Sutherland,
a professor of history at UA Fayetteville. Dan is the recipient of
fellowships from the national Endowment for the Humanities and from the Andrew
J. Mellon Foundation.
He has authored eight books (and edited four others) including Fredericksburg
& Chancellorsville: The Dare Mark Campaign (University of Nebraska Press, 1988),
A Very Violent Rebel (University of Tennessee Press, 1995), The Confederate
Carpetbaggers (Louisiana State University Press, 1988) and Seasons of War (Free
Press, 1995), for which he received both the Douglas Southall Freeman Award and
the Laney Award.
He edited Guerrillas, Unionists, and Violence on the Confederate Home Front
and his presentation to us will be about guerilla warfare during the Civil War,
what Sutherland refers to as ?the desperate side of war.
Merriam-Webster defines guerilla as: (n) a person who engages in
irregular warfare esp. as a member of an independent unit carrying out
harassment and sabotage. (adj) of, relating to, or characteristic of
guerrillas esp. in being aggressive, radical, or unconventional.
Don't miss Dr. Sutherland on this interesting topic!
THANKS TO Dr. Brian Steel Wills, UVA- Wise, for his presentation in August on
Forrest in the Summer of ?64. Brian, as usual, gave an outstanding and
informative talk. We look forward to his return in 2005. Thanks,
also, to member Jim Ayers for all his assistance before and during Brian's visit
(as well as his hospitality).
PROGRAMS TO COME:
October 28, 2003--Landon Smith, Jackson, Miss., Prai-rie d'Ane.
November 25, 2003--Rob MacGregor, Little Rock, Jefferson Davis, Before &
After the Civil War. (Election of Officers)
December, 2003--No meeting.
OUR PROGRAM CHAIRMAN Gaylord Northrop has continued the tradition of
scheduling programs into the next year. So here?s 2004 (so far):
January 27, 2004--Drew Hodges, North Little Rock, Lee's War Horse: Pete
February 24, 2004--TBA
March 23, 2004--Jim Woodrick, Jackson, Miss. CWRT, TBA.
April 27, 2004--Dr. William Shea, UA-Monticello, TBA
May 25, 2004--Cal Collier, Towson, Md., TBA
June 22, 2004--TBA
July 27, 2004--Gaylord Northrop, Sherwood, Command & Control in Confederate
August 24, 2004--Supt. Ralph Jones, Fort Gibson, Okla., The Battle of Honey
September 28, 2004--Dr. Tom DeBlack, Arkansas Tech, Fire & Sword: Arkansas
October 26, 2004--TBA
November 23, 2004--TBA
FROM The Civil War Round Table of Chicago:
The Civil War Round Table of Chicago will present its annual Nevins-Freeman
Award to Jerry L. Russell on Friday October 10, 2003. Mr. Russell will speak to
the Round Table at that meeting, on the topic Battlefield Preservation--From the
Beginning. The dinner meeting is at the Chicago Mart Plaza Holiday Inn, 350 N.
Orleans, Chicago, and visitors are welcome.
The Nevins-Freeman Award is presented annually to an individual who has made
a distinguished contribution to our study and knowledge of the history and
heritage of the Civil War. The Civil War Round Table of Chicago, which was
the first Civil War Round Table, established in December 1940, inaugurated this
award in 1974, when Bruce Catton was chosen as the first recipient. Mr. Russell
is our honoree for 2003. Other honorees have included Ralph G. Newman
(founder of The Chicago Civil War Round Table), T. Harry Williams, Bell I.
Wiley, E.B. ?Pete? Long, Edwin C. Bearss, James I. ?Bud? Robertson, Frank E.
Vandiver, John Hope Franklin, Richard B. Harwell, John Y. Simon, Robert K.
Krick, Mark E. Neely, Jr., Marshall Krolick, Gary W. Gallagher, Shelby Foote,
Stephen B. Oates, Alan T. Nolan, Richard Current, James M. McPherson, Wiley
Sword, Charles P. Roland, Brooks Davis, and Harold Holzer.---The Civil War Round
Table of Chicago (1940-2003)
I'D LIKE TO TELL you about a Civil War battle (1864) that you may have never
heard of. It occurred in the broken country of southeastern Colorado, and
involved Colorado militia and Cheyenne Indians.
We visited this battlefield last week, with Ed Bearss. It's called
Sand Creek. I'd like to share with you some information that we sent out during
and after the Order of the Indian Wars meeting, and ask you to once again help
us try to keep the National Park Service on the right side in a battlefield
First, the message to our INDIAN WARS NETWORK on September 5, the day of our
tour to Sand Creek: September 5, 2003/ (re-run)
We had a great visit to Sand Creek today, and were really impressed at the
evidence that has been gathered over the last six or seven years that the ?Sand
Creek Massacre? site planned to be a National Historic Landmark by the National
Park Service didn?t occur only on the land which Southwest Entertainment (an
Indian casino corporation) has purchased and deeded to the Cheyenne Tribe of
The site we visited today, on the Bowen Ranch, was very believable as the
site of the Black Kettle Village. See the news release below that we sent out to
various Colorado newspapers, the Associated Press Bureau in Denver, and USA
ORDER OF THE INDIAN WARS
PO Box 7401, Little Rock AR 72217 <firstname.lastname@example.org>
FOR RELEASE, FRIDAY, 11:00 a.m., SEPTEMBER 5, 2003
CONTACT JERRY RUSSELL, Ramada Inn, Colorado Springs, 719-633-5541
INDIAN WARS STUDY GROUP VISITS THE REAL SAND CREEK SITE
EADS, COLO.--A group of Indian Wars students from around the country, and
even from the United Kingdom, came to Eads today on the way to see the ?real?
Sand Creek site.
While the National Park Service has designated another site, this group, led
by the legendary battlefield guide Edwin C. Bearss, chief historian emeritus for
the National Park Service who retired in 1995 after half a century in the NPS,
will visit the Bowen Ranch, in Kiowa County. Steered by some of its members, the
OIW decided to try to visit the Bowen Ranch, outside of Eads, based on the
convincing arguments in favor of this site, rather than the NPS site, the
?traditional? site, which includes another area ranch recently purchased by an
Indian casino company and deeded to the Cheyenne Tribe of Oklahoma.
Jerry Russell of Little Rock, Ark., national chairman of the Order of Indian
Wars, set the stage for his group at yesterday?s opening session in Colorado
Springs. At dawn on November 29, 1864, about 650 soldiers from Colorado?s First
and Third cavalry units, led by Col. John Chivington, a Methodist minister,
attacked the camp of Chief Black Kettle on the Big Sandy, killing over 160
Cheyenne and Arapaho men, women, and children. The camp had been
identified as providing shelter to some of the marauding Indians who had
terrorized western Kansas and eastern Colorado that summer and fall. Because of
the deaths of ?innocents,? and the barbarous actions of some of the
soldiers--who claimed only to be duplicating the savagery of the Indian
raiders--this has become known as the Sand Creek Massacre.
Two years earlier, several hundred white settlers had been killed and
savaged during the Sioux Uprising in Minnesota. Afterward, rumors flew
across the frontier that the Indian tribes were on the warpath.
Stagecoaches were raided, mail carriers refused to travel across the Plains.
Newspaper headlines raged ?Indian vs. White Man, More Indian Outrages, The
Indians Are Coming!
In June of 1864, the Hungate family was killed by four Arapaho on their ranch
25 miles southeast of Denver. The mutilated bodies, including those of two
children, were brought to the five-year old town and placed on public display.
Historian Tom Noel says the impact was immediate. Nowadays we find it hard
to believe there was a real possibility that all whites in Denver could be wiped
out by Indians. But when people saw those girls carved up, it certainly
enhanced that possibility in their minds.By August, Territorial Governor John
Evans received authorization for a 100-day volunteer regiment, the Colorado 3d
Col. George L. Shoup commanded the 3rd Colorado Cavalry, but the field
commander at Sand Creek was a 6-foot-5-inch former Methodist preacher who had
gained public renown by his heroic actions during the Civil War?s New Mexico
Campaign, driving back the invading Texas Confederates at the Battle of Glorieta
Col. Chivington?s mission was to punish the hostile marauders, Arapaho and
Cheyenne. He recruited soldiers for the new regiment, and conducted uneventful
patrols along the Platte River. The lack of action caused the uneasy and
frightened settlers to dub the regiment ?the bloodless Thirdsters.
The ?Peace Chiefs? among the Indians, including Black Kettle of the
Cheyenne, had been given an ultimatum by Gov. Evans--surrender or risk attack.
A summit of white and Indian leaders was held at Denver?s Camp Weld; both
Chivington and Black Kettle were present.
When the Cheyenne asked how he could protect his people, he was told to move
the tribe and report to Fort Lyon, south of Denver, and turn himself in.
A big misunderstanding of the affair comes from the fact that Black Kettle's
Cheyennes did not turn themselves in. They did not camp at Ft. Lyon, and
they were not fed and protected. When they returned from Camp Weld, Black
Kettle even told John Prowers, that they left Denver and the whites and could
not make any treaty of peace with them. The Indians who camped and were
fed at Lyon were Arapahos. The Arapahos were told to move away. They
moved, and they were not attacked.
This, according to historian and author Greg Michno, is a salient point that
almost everyone keeps missing. The Cheyennes who were attacked on Sand
Creek were not those camped near Lyon; they were the Indians who had been
raiding all summer and held seven white captives in the village.
Col. Chivington and his men showed up at Fort Lyon, and asked about the
Cheyenne. They were told that Black Kettle?s tribe had moved to Sand Creek.
The ?hostile? Cheyennes, they told Col. Chivington, were camped 50 miles away
from Sand Creek at Smoky Hill. Attacking Black Kettle would be wrong, Col.
Chivington was told. He replied, Damn any man who is in sympathy with an Indian,
and prepared his ?bloodless? troops for action.
A French philosopher once said, when you travel back in time, leave yourself
behind. The whites of the time were terrified by the prospect of Indian
uprising. The Indians were outraged at the white men taking over their
land. There was misunderstanding, racism, bigotry, and barbarous behavior
on both sides.
Col. Chivington?s men rode all night toward Sand Creek--about 500 volunteers
from the Colorado 3d Cavalry, 125 seasoned 1st Cavalry troops from Fort Lyon,
and four 12-pounder mountain howitzers (small, mobile cannon). They
arrived at dawn and attacked the sleeping village.
For six hours, the Colorado troops rained shot and shell on the village with
rifles and cannons, chasing the fleeing Indians--Arapaho and Cheyenne--up and
down Sand Creek, slaying--some say butchering--men, women, and children, cutting
away body parts as trophies, as the Indian marauders had been wont to do.
Col. Chivington had addressed his troops at first light ?I don?t tell you to
kill all ages and sexes, but look back on the plains of the Platte, where your
mothers, fathers, brothers, sisters have been slain.? Some have reported
that the Methodist parson added, ?Nits make lice.
Mike Koury of Old Army Press will tell you later today in detail about the
circumstances which led to this battle. At the urging of a Congressional
committee which had been formed to look at Civil War atrocities, Sand Creek was
condemned as a ?gross and wanton massacre.? Territorial Governor Evans was
later removed from office; Chivington went unpunished. Perhaps during our
Friday tour, we can form some impressions of our own as to what happened and
where it happened. We?re very fortunate that the Bowen family--Buster, the
patriarch, and Chuck and Sheri, are allowing us to visit this site on their
property. The Bowens ?found? the site, and documented the find in 1997-98,
long before the Park Service began its investigations. They were asked by
NPS to write a report on their finding, and a 41-page report, plus maps; the
Park Service condensed it to 1 ? pages in the back of their site study book,
without crediting the Bowen family for the finding of the site. None of
the ?official? reports even mentioned the Bowen Ranch. But they
The family agreed for NPS to have 90 days for archeology and research; NPS
took two days on their line, one of which was a media day. In those two days,
Chuck Bowen told me, they became experts and knew the extent of the Indian camp
and the movement of the troops on our land. He continued I've spent 51 years in
some manner on the ranch at Sand Creek and 10 years of passionate interest in
this historic event. There is no way they could have concluded accurately
what was on our land in that short amount of time. The Bowens have literally
walked miles and miles, back and forth across the village site, discovering
thousands of artifacts--documented by GPS coordinates--which prove the existence
of the Indian village at the site.
We just happen to want to have the full story preserved, Chuck Bowen said.
Our interest is to inform the public of our discovery in 97 and ?98 and the
story the artifacts tell. I think it is important to note we have part, if
not most, of the camp (and I believe Black Kettle?s camp) while the NPS has been
saying we had the rifle pits and running battle area. We are very grateful to
the Bowen family, and to our members in the area who told us about the family,
and the ranch--the real Sand Creek. The Bowens are not taking sides about
the 1864 attack, referred to for 140 years as Sand Creek Massacre. They
are just concerned that whatever story is told will be told at the ?real? site
of the Cheyenne village.
As Chuck told me, We just want to make our contribution to the story of Sand
Creek, examining what happened then from 139 years in the future. We see
this as an opportunity to help Kiowa County and Prewers County in the developing
heritage tourism activities of our area. In a recent development, the National
Park Service has decided to rethink the boundaries of the Sand Creek battle, now
believing that the extent of the action involved more acreage than previously
believed. Once the boundaries of the National Historic Landmark are
decided, extensive archaeological research will be con-ducted, to enable the
Park Service to present a fair and balanced presentation in the interpretation
of the site.
(Then there was other information on the program Thursday afternoon, and the
program schedule for the remainder of the weekend.)
Then the commentary:
The really disappointing thing about this project is how the Park Service is
As it now stands, the site will be called the Sand Creek Massacre National
The preliminary report published by the Park Service refers to the ?Sand
Creek Massacre Site.
This report even refers to the Massacre Monument? on the Dawson Ranch site,
although the monument there clearly says The Battle of Sand Creek. It has been
referred to for 139 years as the Sand Creek Massacre.? But there IS
evidence to refute this title (just as there IS evidence to support this title).
But, we believe it is the job of the National Park Service to present a fair and
balanced interpretation of the battle without passing 21st century judgement on
Just tell it like it is, without the politically-correct, judgmental
Sand Creek Massacre? is very divisive terminology, just as the term
Custer Massacre was before it fell out of favor and out of use. We'd like to ask
you to write your US Senators (c/o U.S. Senate, Washington DC 20510) and your
Member of Congress (c/o House of Representatives, Washington DC 20515), and ask
1. Get and send to you, from the National Park Service, a copy of the Sand
Creek Massacre Site
2. Instruct the Park Service to delete the divisive and judgmental term
?massacre? from all Park Service material dealing with the Sand Creek site.
Those are two simple requests, letters that might take you three minutes each to
Your letters could make the difference between fair and balanced
interpretation at the Battle of Sand Creek site, or judgmental, divisive
interpretation at the Battle of Sand Creek site.
This is no way should be taken as approval of the actions which occurred on
both sides. War is terrible. Combat leads to barbarous actions,
usually on both sides. But making judgements on actions that took place
almost 139 years ago, by the yardstick of today?s standards, are not the job of
the National Park Service.
Please write your federal elected officials and tell them so.
Finally, I'd like to make one more request of those who are internet savvy:
Please go to <www.kiowacountycolo.com> and sign the guest book. Tell them you
have just read about a national meeting that visited the Sand Creek site on the
Bowen Ranch, and understand that it was an excellent tour, making a persuasive
case for believing that the site of Black Kettle's village was on the Bowen
Chuck and Sheri Bowen, and their family, deserve a great deal of credit for
this discovery, but they have been pretty well ignored by the National Park
Service (as was laid out in the news release above).
Please do this, for the Bowens, and for Indian Wars history. These people
deserve our help, and history cries out for our help! Jerry L. Russell
NOTED MILITARY HISTORIAN and author James Bradley will appear at a reception
and book signing to benefit the MacArthur Museum of Military History from
5:30-7:30 p.m. Wednesday, October 15. The book signing will be followed by
a lecture at 8 p.m. Bradley's book, Flags of Our Fathers, was a New York Times
#1 bestseller. It was described by the late Stephen Ambrose as the best
battle book I have ever read, and Steven Spielberg has acquired movie
PATRICK CLEBURNE AWARD GIVEN TO TWO LITTLE ROCK
Two Little Rock historians--Dr. Bobby Roberts and Dr. Carl Moneyhon, both of
Little Rock--were presented an award for their contributions to Arkansas? Civil
War history at a recent symposium on Arkansas in the Civil War at the Old State
House in Little Rock.
The Patrick Cleburne Award, a replica CSA officers sword, has been presented
by the Civil War Round Table of Arkansas, in Little Rock, since 1996. The
first recipient was Edwin C. Bearss, the chief historian emeritus of the
National Park Service, and author of Steele?s Retreat From Camden and The Battle
of Jenkins Ferry. Mr. Bearss, then a supervisory historian for NPS, drew
up the original plan for the establishment of the Pea Ridge National Military
Park in northwest Arkansas, and has been a consultant for the State Department
of Parks & Tourism for Prairie Grove State Battlefield Park east of
Other recipients include:
(1997) Jerry L. Russell of Little Rock, charter president of the Civil War
Round Table of Arkansas in 1964 and national chairman of Civil War Round Table
Associates, a national umbrella organization for Civil War study groups around
the country; he also helped organize 10 other CWRTs in Arkansas;
?(1998) Don Hamilton of Little Rock, a past president of the Civil War Round
Table of Arkansas, and chairman of the Central Arkansas Heritage Trail, which
has developed a driving tour of the 1863 Little Rock Campaign, with appropriate
signage at the various sites; (1999) the late William W. O?Donnell of Little
Rock, a past president of the Civil War Round Table of Arkansas, and author of
Civil War Quadrennium: Little Rock During the Civil War, published in 1986 and
designated as a Arkansas Sesquicentennial book; (2000) Calvin L. Collier of
Baltimore, Md., one of the founders of the Civil War Round Table of Arkansas,
and author of three books on Arkansas units in the Confederate army--the 3d
Arkansas Infantry, the 3d Arkansas Cavalry, and the 1st Arkansas Infantry;
(2001) Former U.S. Senator Dale Bumpers of Arkansas, who, during his term as
chairman of the Senate Subcommittee on National Parks, was instrumental in
helping to preserve various Civil War battlefields, and was responsible for the
establishment of the American Battlefield Preservation agency which surveyed the
Civil War battlefields of America and works toward the protection and
preservation of those sites; he also was instrumental in helping to develop the
national Civil War sites at Pea Ridge and Arkansas Post, and the Civil War
Heritage trails in Arkansas.
The awards given this year were for 2002-2003 and were given to both Dr.
Roberts and Dr. Moneyhon to mark their joint efforts in the area of Civil War
Dr. Bobby Roberts, director of the Central Arkansas Library System, and Dr.
Carl Moneyhon, a history professor at UALR, were the authors of Portraits of
Conflict: Arkansas in the Civil War, which was the best-selling book published
by the University of Arkansas Press to that time and was the first book in the
UA Press? best-selling series. A second edition, with many new images of
Civil War soldiers and scenes in and from Arkansas, is expected to be published
next year. The book led to a series, and other Portraits of Conflict books
have now been published for Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, written by Dr.
Moneyhon and Dr. Roberts, and Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina,
edited by the pair. Several books remain to be published.
Dr. Roberts was formerly the curator at the UALR Library, and Dr. Moneyhon
has been a professor of history at UALR for nearly two decades, and has written
other books on the Civil War and Reconstruction.
FROM THE Newsletter of the Civil War Round Table of
Chicago, June 2003
Excerpt from Battlefield Preservation Update
by Mary Munsell Abroe
CWPT Buys One Hundred-plus Acres at Fort Donelson: In mid-April, the
Nashville Tennessean featured an article detailing the December 2002 purchase of
105 acres near Fort Donelson by the Civil War Preservation Trust. The
Trust acquired three parcels south of Dover, Tennessee for $350,000, leveraging
its own funds in order to get half of the purchase price from the $50-million
Civil War Battlefield Preservation Act that was signed by President Bush last
According to Ed Bearss, Fort Donelson is ?one of the most unprotected
battlefields left in the U.S.? Jim Campi, spokesman for the Trust,
indicated that the acquisition encompasses a fifty-acre tract east of the Forge
Road leading to Nashville, ?where 70% of the Union casualties occurred during
the battle and where Nathan Bedford Forrest broke out of the Union lines.?
That tract and the other two likely will be donated to Fort Donelson National
Battlefield, but only after congressional legislation expands park boundaries to
allow for their inclusion. According to Supt. Richard Hanks of Fort
Donelson, ?...part of ..(the land) will be left as battlefield, and someday we
may use it as a tour route.? He went on to emphasize that ?this is (a)
very, very significant historical property. It?s a wonderful step for the future
of this park and the community, because it will allow this park to become more
FROM THE SKIRMISH LINE, newsletter of the San Diego
CWRT, August 20, 2003, Volume 17, #8
UNITED STATES PRESIDENT WHO BECAME A CONFEDER-ATE
GENERAL, by Gene Armistead
It is well known and often com-mented upon that many Confederate leaders had
held high offices in the United States govern-ment or army prior to the Civil
War. Many had been Congress-men, Senators, cabinet officers, or
higher-ranking Army officers. Joseph E. Johnston had been Quartermaster General
of the U.S. Army. Former President John Tyler served as a Confederate
Provisional Congressmen and was elected to serve in the first regular Congress.
These were not the highest ranking U.S. officials to serve the Confederacy
It takes but a very slight ?twist? of history to find that one former
President of the United States later became a Confederate Brigadier General.
This American was a noted man of his day but is now almost forgotten. The term
of office of President James K. Polk expired on March 3, 1849. His
successor, President Zachary Taylor, refused to be sworn into office on that
date because it was a Sun-day. According to the law of Presidential succession
of that era, when both the President and the Vice Pres-ident were not able to
serve, the President of the Senate was to act as President. When President
Polk?s term expired, that man was David Rice Atchison of Missouri.
Therefore, from the expiration of Polk?s term until the swearing in of Taylor -
one day, Senator Atchison became President of the United States.
It is alleged that President Atchison slept through his entire ?term? of
office as a result of an exhausting week of pre-inaugural activities.
A dozen years later found Atchison a Brigadier General of the Missouri State
As part of Sterling Price's Missouri State Guard, Atchison led a detachment
in a successful attack on Union forces in Missouri. His report of that
action, which can be found in the OFFICIAL RECORDS OF THE WAR OF THE REBELLION,
was signed by Atchison as General. He saw no further active service during
the Civil War, but Atchison?s combat roll as a State-rank general against Union
troops certainly gives him the claim - as later it did many others - to having
been a Confederate General.
Both Atchison, Kansas, and Atchison County, Missouri, are named after him.
He died at the age of 79 and is buried at Plattsburgh, Missouri, where his grave
monument reads, David Rice Atchison, President of the United States, For One
SEE YOU TUESDAY NIGHT for Dr. Dan Sutherland and
We Who Study Must Also Strive To Save!
GOD BLESS AMERICA!